1. Tigers roar to advertise their location. Roars are used for long-range communication
and can be heard for over 3 km (2 mi.). Roars can be used as a warning to keep other
tigers away or as an invitation to bring another tiger closer. (14)
2. Loud moans are most often heard in combination with roars. Soft
moans are used by mother tigers to gather cubs, or by individuals to announce their
approach to other tigers. (14)
3. Prusten is a short, noisy, low-intensity sound used
as a friendly greeting or a reassuring call between a mother tiger and her cubs, or a
courting pair. (14)
4. Growls, snarls, and hisses are used in aggressive and defensive encounters.
5. Other close contact vocalizations include grunting, meowing, purring, and woofing. (14)
1. A tiger's body language is similar to that of other cats.
2. For instance, when a tiger shows aggression (an offensive threat) the tail is
usually lashed from side to side, the head is held low, the ears are twisted so that the
backs face forward (showing the ear spots), the eyes are opened wide, and the mouth is
almost closed with the lips forming a straight line. (14)
3. During a defensive threat, the ears are normally laid back, the teeth are bared, the
nose is wrinkled, the eyes are narrowed to slits, and the tail is held low. (14)
4. When greeting another tiger or investigating surroundings, a tiger's ears are upright and alert, and the tail is held high. (3, 14)
C. Scent and touch
1. Overall urine is the most common scent communicator.
a. Tigers use urine (marking fluid) most often to mark home
b. A female tiger increases her rate of scent-marking a few days before (not during) estrus to attract a mate. The resident male usually responds by increasing his scent marking around the female's territory while she's in estrus. (13)
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