As in most birds, penguin hearing is thought to be good, but not as acute as that of marine mammals. The hearing range for most birds is 0.1-8 kHz. Hearing for penguins has not been well researched, but vocalization has. Vocalizations (calls) are important in communication and mate recognition.
1 . A penguin's eyes are adapted for underwater vision (del Hoyo, et al., 1992). In air, penguins are nearsighted (Sparks and Soper, 1987).
2. Penguins have exhibited color vision and are sensitive to violet, blue, and green light (Sparks and Soper, 1987).
The sense of taste in penguins has not been extensively studied. In general, the sense of taste is poorly developed in birds.
Penguins' sense of smell may be more developed than early studies indicated. The olfactory lobe of a penguin's brain is large (Muller-Schwarze, 1984). Studies on captive Humboldt penguins indicate that this species may have some sense of smell (del Hoyo, et al., 1992).
Adaptations for an Aquatic Environment
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