1 . Some species of bony fishes, such as morays (family Muraenidae) are more active at night.
2. Some species of bony fishes, such as butterflyfishes (family Chaelodontidae) and parrotfishes (family Scaridae) are most active during the daytime.
3. Some bony fish species are most active at dawn and dusk.
1 . Many species of small bony fishes that inhabit the water column school together. Schooling allows bony fish to give the impression of a large animal to discourage predators. An individual fish has a lesser chance of being eaten by a predator when in a school than when alone. Schooling also may facilitate locating food sources, pose a hydrodynamic advantage, and increase reproductive success.
a. Spawning aggregations develop for the purpose of reproduction. These schools consist mainly of reproductively mature individuals. Cod (family Gadidae) often form spawning schools.
b. Migrating schools form along migration routes of bony fishes. Migrating schools often form into other types of schools, such as spawning schools. Salmon (family Salmonidae) form migrating schools as they travel upstream to spawn.
Many species of small fishes, such as these northern anchovies (Engraulis mordax), school.
c. Feeding schools develop in the feeding grounds. Feeding schools form primarily due to the concentration of food organisms. Feeding schools can be comprised of many different species of bony fishes at different developmental stages.
d. Wintering schools originate in the wintering grounds of bony fishes. Various species of bony fishes may congregate into areas with appropriate environmental conditions for survival during the winter months. These schools often disband after the winter season.
2. in general, large predatory bony fishes such as groupers (family Serranida) are often asocial, except during breeding seasons.
3. Bony fishes have sharply contrasting territorial behavior. Even though damselfishes (family Pomacentridae) are relatively small, they are fearless in defending their territory. However, most large groupers (family Serranidae) will retreat from their territory it approached by another animal.
1. Among the slowest-swimming bony fishes are the eels.
2. The fastest bony fish may be the sailfish Istiophorus platypterus, which has been clocked at speeds greater than I 00 km per hour (62 mph) (Joseph, 1988).
3. Many bony fishes spend most of their time lying on the ocean bottom. Bottom-dwellers include stonetishes (Synanceja spp.), flatfishes (order Pleuronectiformes), and blennies (family Blenniidae).
The stonefish (synanceia verrucosa) spends most of its time lying on the ocean bottom.
4. The caudal fin is the fin most commonly associated with swimming, but many species rely on other fins for propulsion.
1 . Many bony fishes produce sound, sometimes in association with reproductive, social, territorial, or aggressive behavior.
2. Most sounds produced by bony fishes are below 1 0,000 Hz (Marshall, 1973).
3. Depending on the species, a bony fish can produce sound by rubbing its teeth together, vibrating its swim bladder, or by flexing and contracting muscles.
1 . Several species of small bony fishes, such as the cleaner wrasse (Labroides dimidiatus), are "cleaners" that eat debris and parasites from the skin and scales of larger fishes.
2. Remoras (family Echeneidae) commonly attach themselves to sharks or other large fishes, whales, and sea turtles using a modified dorsal fin. They eat scraps left over from the meals of their hosts. They may eat parasites as well.
3. Bony fishes may have symbiotic relationships with nonfish species. Clownfishes (family Pomacentridae) live unharmed among the venomous tentacles of sea anemones, which protect the clownfish from potential predators.
Clownfishes (family Pomacentridae) live unharmed among the venomous tentacles of sea anemones.
1 . The great barracuda (Sphyraena barracuda) has been known to attack divers. Barracuda may confuse shiny objects with the shiny scales of their prey.
The great barracuda (Sphyraena barracuda) has been known to attack divers.
2. Piranhas (Serrasalmus spp.) can be voracious predators-they're quick swimmers with razor-sharp teeth. Piranhas inhabit freshwater river systems in South America. During periods of low rainfall, streams and rivers recede, and schools of piranhas can become trapped in shallow ponds. Here their usual prey-smaller fish-are soon consumed. A school of starving piranhas can consume large animals in minutes. Under these circumstances, piranhas have been known to attack humans. They are not a threat to humans when water levels are high and food is abundant.
Piranhas (Serrasalmus spp.) inhabit river systems in South America. During periods of low rainfall, schools of piranhas can become trapped in shallow ponds, where food is scarce.
3. Morays (family Muraenidae) inhabit tropical and warm-temperate waters of the world. Most species can be found in coral reefs and rocky areas taking shelter in cracks and crevices. Divers tormenting them, feeding them, or invading their areas have provoked nonfatal attacks.
Diet and Eating Habits
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